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Shapeshifting: The Evolution of a Post-Modern Integral Medicine - Origins of the Mind/Body Movement

Author // Elliott S. Dacher, M.D.

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Shapeshifting: The Evolution of a Post-Modern Integral Medicine
Origins of the Mind/Body Movement
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Origins of the Mind/Body Movement

The mind/body movement resulted from the merging of several streams that came together at more or less the same time. In the 1950s Elmer Green, the founder of biofeedback, journeyed to India to study the great yogis and their capacity to reach profound levels of consciousness that were accompanied by a mastery over physiology previously unknown in the West. He sought to record the brain waves of these masters to see if Westerners could be trained to emulate these mental states and the physiological mastery that accompanied them.

In the same line of thought Herbert Benson, a researcher at the Thorndike Laboratories at Harvard, pioneered research on the physiological states attained by experienced meditators and developed the concept of the relaxation response, a technique to calm the mind. He also journeyed to the East to study the Tibetan practice of tumo, in which Tibetan monks were able to take sheets dipped in frozen water, wrap them around their unclothed bodies, and then dry them by mentally raising their body temperature. Each monk, situated in a freezing environment, dried one sheet after another. The physiology of this mastery of mind was accurately measured and recorded.

The next major contribution to mind/body medicine came from the developing scientific field of psychoneuroimmunology, in which researchers such as Robert Ader and Candace Pert began the effort of isolating the chemicals in the body, called neuropeptides, that were the interface between mental states and physiological states, the mind/body connection. More currently, exciting research in the neurosciences is now using sophisticated brain-wave measurements and functional MRIs to correlate states of consciousness with brain function. From these efforts arose the fields of biofeedback, relaxation therapy, visualization practices, and the popularization of other mind/body techniques such as yoga, aikido, and tai chi. The fate of these techniques was much the same as the fate of the wellness and health promotion initiatives. In the East the purpose of training the mind is to grow toward greater self-knowledge, an expansive heart, and an accurate understanding of reality that together free the mind and body from the root sources of stress, distress and suffering. This release from confusion and suffering leads to the progressive attainment of optimal well-being and human flourishing.

When incorporated into Western culture, these perspectives and practices were dramatically altered. Their original intent was the expansion of consciousness, inner development, freedom from suffering, and the promotion of optimal well-being. Unfortunately, their core essence was ignored and these rich and holistic approaches became another set of remedies for the many ailments of modern times. As with the wellness and health-promotion movements, when these mind/ body approaches hit the mainstream, their intent and direction were changed to conform to the prevailing perspectives. They became treatments rather than steps to a larger consciousness and health. These mind/body approaches were and still are important contributions to expanding the scope of healing, but because they have not grown our consciousness they have not fundamentally shifted healing to its next stage of evolution.

Holism, as expressed in the philosophies of the East, refers to the inner experience of the oneness and unity of life that is directly and uninterruptedly experienced at higher levels of consciousness. Some of us have at times touched into a less developed form of this as a “peak peek” experience. In his book Holism and Evolution, written in the 1920s, Jan Smuts, a South African prime minister and self-made biologist, reduced and applied the larger spiritual experience of oneness into an idea about biology. He proposed that evolution occurs by the emergence in nature of increasingly larger and more complex wholes, each of which is a part of the next larger whole. For example, a cell is a whole that embraces and transcends its molecules in structure, function and capacity, and similarly it, itself, is a part of a larger whole, organs and organ systems.

George Engel, a noted physician, attempted to bring this vision into medicine in a way that highlighted the interdependence of all of life, from atom to consciousness to environment. He suggested that medicine consider all aspects of the human condition in its view of health and disease. Holism, as expressed by Smuts and Engel, was a theory about biology, as well as life. It can be said that the perspectives of Smuts and Engel were reduced and materialized understandings of the larger vision of holism held in the East. Nevertheless, these were broad and expansive perspectives of the human condition.

When taken over by the medical and corporate community, holism, as a philosophy, was reduced to a marketing tool. We rearranged things a bit and created a “new” type of medical center or promoted a “new” type of healing practitioner whose singular innovation was gathering multiple physical outer-based healing techniques under one umbrella. These efforts were merely marketing tools that suggested something new when the truth was otherwise, simply a collection of techniques rather than a fundamental innovation. The transcendent vision of the East, the grand biological theory of Smuts, and its clinical expression in the writings of Engel were reconfigured to conform to the intractable view of an outer medicine. The principle of holism expanded our notion of healing, but it did not fundamentally change it or lead to the further development of our inner healing capacities.

Finally, there is the effort to explore and use alternative therapies such as Ayurveda, Chinese medicine, herbalism, and homeopathy. Not all of these approaches are the same. Some are broad-based psycho-spiritual perspectives that reach into the inner dimensions of healing, others are not. Some have been shown to have clinical effectiveness while others ride on the label of “alternative.” In either case, the result is the same.

When practitioners or advocates of these approaches seek social and cultural validation, licensure and recognition from the insurance industry and medical establishment, they sacrifice their rich inner essence of their traditions. The cost of “conventionalizing” the great healing traditions is to dilute and contort them into outer therapies, another set of tools done by a practitioner to a patient. No one can argue with the expanding approaches available to treat headaches, back pains and chronic disease provided by “alternative” therapies, but once again the expanding scope of outer healing has done nothing to bring us to a larger vision of health and healing. Alternative medicine, in its urgency to become part of the medical mainstream, has been reshaped and incorporated into modern medicine as one more medical “tool.”

Each of these efforts has been a well-intentioned attempt to deal with the limitations of an exclusively outer-focused healing that denies healing’s interior aspects. However, they have failed to create fundamental change. We have deceived ourselves. We have become entwined in a pervasive outer view that will defend itself in all ways and sabotage any of our efforts to leap toward a larger health. Our approach to healing has neither shifted shape nor form, nor evolved to a higher level. At best it has expanded the scope, the activities, and the number and type of practitioners and therapies.


A Post-Modern Integral Medicine

Author Ken Wilber defines this type of change—change that expands the scope and activities of outer healing—as horizontal change, in contrast to vertical change. Understanding the difference between these two types of change is essential if we are to grow toward a more comprehensive healing and gather the treasures of a far larger health. It is not for lack of right intention, but rather a result of our inability to grasp the difference between these two types of change that has kept us stuck where we are.

All our efforts to expand healing have been horizontal changes. They have expanded the scope of outer healing, providing better opportunities to therapeutically manage physical and gross psychological disturbances, adding comfort, ease and at times years to our lives. For this we must be grateful.

However, in the process of expanding the scope of outer healing, these efforts have also inadvertently served to lock it more in place, strengthen its dominance, and weaken efforts to change it. They do so because they provide the false hope that fundamental change is really occurring, and thus occupy some of our best minds and all our hopes for a larger healing in efforts that in the end will not lead to the expansion in consciousness that we need.

We, who must ultimately be the agents of change, remain with the same perspectives and the same level of consciousness, irrespective of our insistence that ourselves and our healing are changing. Horizontal change does not transform our sense of self. It does not change our consciousness, change our vision or capacities, affect the character of our healing, or take us toward a mature and comprehensive inner and outer healing. It only changes the tools that the old self and its consciousness use. If we look very closely at our medicine, most if not all of what we do is horizontal change—rearranging furniture in the same room and thinking that something has actually changed. Nothing can be more paralyzing than this delusion.

Vertical change is a shift or leap in consciousness to a new level of development and capacity—one that is deeper, broader and more whole than what preceded it. We gain a new set of eyes with which to see the possibility of a larger life and health. The shift from archaic, to magical, to mythical, to philosophical, to theological, to intellectual levels of mental development are examples of vertical shifts in consciousness that in each case went beyond what preceded it by radically enlarging our understanding of health and healing, making available to each of us far more of the human experience. These shifts did not expand “what is”—they transformed it. These were momentous movements, individually and culturally, shifting the center of gravity from one level of consciousness and its outer forms to another. When our “self” has undergone change through a leap in consciousness, our understandings and worldly endeavors take on new and larger proportions.

Descriptions of vertical change can be found throughout the ages and across cultures, and these descriptions are quite similar. In his Republic, Plato describes them in his Parable of the Cave and his Simile of the Line. In the East they are expressed as the movements through the seven chakras, or the ten levels of bodhisattva training. More recently, Sri Aurobindo details these vertical shifts in great detail in his Integral Yoga and The Life Divine. And to this can be added Abraham Maslow, Erik Erickson, and the modern developmental psychologists. More recently, Ken Wilber extensively reviewed many such descriptions of vertical change in his books A Brief Theory of Everything and Sex, Spirit, and Ecology. In each instance these authors describe vertical change in a remarkably similar way. They describe it as a progression of consciousness, understanding and capacity from the most primitive and instinctual levels to the broadest spiritual perspectives.

It’s only through the eyes and capacities of a larger consciousness that we can know and hold both ways of healing—inner and outer—uniting them in the creation of a more expansive integral approach to healing that results in a profound health characterized by the attainment of human flourishing. To achieve this we must attempt the great leap now awaiting us, the next great journey in our life, and the shift toward a larger understanding and consciousness that can bring us toward our greatest potential.

The essential discovery is that the full development of our consciousness is the key to a radical shapeshifting of our perspectives and practices of health and healing. It is the doorway into the traditional dream of healing and its abundance of treasures. It is the essential ingredient of a larger life and health. It is this vertical shift, this movement into the center of our being, that is the true path to an uncommon health and human flourishing.

Our capacity for such a comprehensive health and healing relies on inner development. We can begin at any time, irrespective of the culture in which we are currently embedded. It is only through this personal effort that we can collectively foster the development of personal, institutional and cultural values that will support this new and more profound approach to health and healing. The changes begin when we understand and tenaciously pursue the authentic path to a comprehensive well-being of body, mind and spirit.


Pathways Issue 37 CoverThis article appeared in Pathways to Family Wellness magazine, Issue #37.

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